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"Flamig, Zachary L." <[log in to unmask]>
Reply To:
OU Amateur Radio Club <[log in to unmask]>, Flamig, Zachary L.
Mon, 1 Feb 2016 04:29:38 +0000
text/plain (1 lines)
oooh cool. Thank you for sharing Peter!


> On Jan 31, 2016, at 9:17 AM, Peter Laws <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> If you are into SDRs and modulation and information encoding and
> satellites, the first item is for you.  I, myself, was able to recover
> about 10% of the information encoded in the article. :-D  Also, an
> article about UFOs ...
> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
> From: E.Mike McCardel <[log in to unmask]>
> Date: Sat, Jan 30, 2016 at 9:26 PM
> Subject: [ans] ANS-031 AMSAT News Service Weekly Bulletins
> To: [log in to unmask]
> ANS-031
> The AMSAT News Service bulletins are a free, weekly news and infor-
> mation service of AMSAT North America, The Radio Amateur Satellite
> Corporation. ANS publishes news related to Amateur Radio in Space
> including reports on the activities of a worldwide group of Amateur
> Radio operators who share an active interest in designing, building,
> launching and communicating through analog and digital Amateur Radio
> satellites.
> The news feed on http://www.amsat.org publishes news of Amateur
> Radio in Space as soon as our volunteers can post it.
> Please send any amateur satellite news or reports to:
> ans-editor at amsat.org.
> In this edition:
> * Weekly engineering report for Phase 4 radio project from AMSAT
> * Write About Satellites, Space and Radio!
> * UFO Researcher To Launch CubeSat To Search For E.T. Close To Home
> * Pair of Satellites ejected from ISS for In-Space Navigation Exercise
> * LilacSat-2 FM Transponder
> * 6W8CK on Satellite
> * IARU Paper: APRS Harmonization and removal of OSCAR sub-band
> * ISS Orbit Boosted Ahead of March Crew Swap - Check Your Elements
> * ARISS News
> * Satellite Shorts From All Over
> SB SAT @ AMSAT $ANS-031.01
> ANS-031 AMSAT News Service Weekly Bulletins
> AMSAT News Service Bulletin 031.01
> BID: $ANS-031.01
> Weekly engineering report for Phase 4 radio project from AMSAT
> The Phase 4 Ground weekly report focuses on the current modulation
> schemes. We're looking at DVB-S2X to receive, and OQPSK to transmit.
> Repository for documents and software can be found:
> https://github.com/phase4ground
> We have nearly 50 volunteers on the mailing list and activity across
> the country. We're working hard to make a wonderful radio for AMSAT
> and terrestrial microwave, and we appreciate your support, feedback,
> comments, and critique.
> DVB-S2 stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite - Second
> Generation. There is a recent extension to this standard, called DVB-
> S2X, that has very low SNR capabilities and a lot of other goodies.
> The geo project, ascent, and eventually the high earth orbit project,
> are expected to transmit using DVB-S2X. This is the foundation of our
> common air interface.
> DVB-S2X specifies the modulation and coding for our received signal.
> There are five major landmarks.
> One, an input stream adapter. Input streams can be packetized or
> continuous, from single or multiple sources. This is helpful!
> Two, forward error correction. Our type is low density parity check
> codes concatenated with BCH codes. What does this mean?
> A concatenated code is one that combines two different coding
> schemes. In coding theory, there's a fundamental problem in that
> finding a really great code that has very low probability of error
> usually means that the block length has to go up, and the decoding is
> more and more complex. When you use two codes together that each have
> particular strengths, they balance each other out. You can get
> exponentially decreasing error probabilities, but you only have to
> pay a polynomially increasing cost in terms of code block length.
> This may seem complicated, but just remember concatenation is codes
> doing teamwork, and the standard that we're using is bad ass.
> Our inner low density parity check code can achieve extremely low
> error rates near channel capacity. This means, it's about as good as
> you can get. The outer BCH codes are used to correct sporadic errors
> made by the LDPC decoder, and to trick it out so that we don't have
> enormous block lengths and stuff like that.
> Three, we have a wide range of code rates. The code rate is
> expressed as a fraction. The top number is how many uncoded bits go
> in. The bottom number is how many coded bits come out. We have four
> constellations. This is the the type of transformation from bits to
> symbols. We have great choices here, and DVB-S2X provides additional
> choices.
> Four, there is a variety of spectral shaping available to us in DVB-
> S2. This is a really neat thing. You can change the pulse shape of a
> transmitted waveform in order to make it better suited for the radio
> environment it's expecting to be traveling through. Usually this
> means making it fit into a bandwidth better. You don't get something
> for nothing, though, so being too aggressive with the pulse shaping
> shows up in other aspects. Our particular shaping is different levels
> of raised-cosign filtering. DVB-S2X provides additional levels of
> shaping.
> Five, this standard lets us learn and develop with something very
> much like cognitive radio. As you can see, there are a lot of choices
> for coding and modulation. We can specify a fixed coding and
> modulation. This is called CCM for constant coding and modulation. In
> the past, people like us looked at a link, designed for the worst
> case solution, and used coding and modulation that would cover almost
> all the bases. DVB-S2 has CCM, but it also specifies something called
> variable coding and modulation, or VCM. The coding and modulation can
> be changed on a frame-by-frame basis in response to different station
> types or changes in the channel. In addition to that, there is
> something called adaptive coding and modulation, or ACM, where
> modulation and coding automagically adapts. This can happen on a
> frame by frame basis.
> DVB-S2 has things called annexes. In annex M, there's a
> specification for something we've already talked about wanting to do.
> We want to map the transmitted services or station streams into time
> slices and then recover information without having to demodulate the
> entire signal.
> DVB-S2 follows the usual flow of having input data coded up to
> remove unnecessary redundancy, which is called source coding, and
> then it is put into one of two different stream types. Because DVB-S2
> is designed for MPEG streams, it has a lot of mechanisms for MPEG
> data types, and I believe that this is the transport stream path in
> the drawing. We aren't going to use MPEG, so we fall into the generic
> stream category.
> The functional blocks of DVB-S2 include these things in trapezoids.
> Mode adaptation, which starts to build up the data frames by
> constructing the right header to go with the data. Stream adaptation,
> which adds in the right amount of padding and scrambling. Forward
> error correction, which produces coded frames that are of one of two
> sizes. Mapping to constellations, which is the modulation. Finally,
> there is physical layer framing. An open question is how minimal of a
> station can be supported? Driving it down as low as possible is going
> to be fun and challenging.
> What we are anticipating is that the space teams will obtain an
> implementation of a DVB-S2X transmitter. Talks are already underway
> for this. Phase 4 ground is going to engineer the various DVB-S2X
> receivers. Standards documents are already in the repository and work
> is beginning. Get off the bench and hit the books!
> So let's talk a bit about some changes in the uplink for phase 4
> radios. We were MSK, or minimum shift keying, but we are now OQPSK,
> or offset quadrature phase shift keying. That is what the payload
> team is currently designing for.
> Like MSK, Offset QPSK has no more than a 90 degree phase shift at a
> time. This is good. In order to create this, you begin with a QPSK
> signal, where you take two data bits at a time. These two binary data
> bits make four distinct values. Each of these values are mapped onto
> four transmit phase shifts.
> For offset QPSK, the odd and even bits coming into the modulator
> have a timing offset, of one bit period. Hence the name. That means
> the in-phase and quadrature signals, the I and the Q, never change at
> the same time.
> The power spectral density of QPSK and Offset QPSK is the same. The
> shift in time doesn't effect that.
> Uplink experiments are beginning. We started putting together Team
> HackRF, which will investigate the use of HackRF SDRs as one of the
> phase 4 radio recipes. Lots of other experiments to work out other
> recipes for amateurs to experiment need to happen too. If you have a
> set of hardware and you want to work in parallel, then speak up. The
> USRPs will get into the act ASAP, some people have BladeRFs, and so
> on.
> Review the weekly report at
> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0CMv0pJHgY&feature=share
> [ANS thanks Michelle W5NYV for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> Write About Satellites, Space and Radio!
> The AMSAT Journal is seeking interesting articles about amateur
> radio satellites, space and radio – topics that feed the passion of
> AMSAT members. Whether the focus is working the birds, new products,
> building a new piece of equipment or an entire station, writing
> software, training or doing demos, or anything else related to
> amateur radio in space, please consider sharing your experience and
> expertise with other AMSAT members by writing for the Journal.
> Desired article length (rough guidelines):
>  Short articles – 800-1400 words
>  Longer articles – 2000-2500 words
> Find out more about writer’s guidelines here.  Photos, diagrams or
> other images always help illustrate your points or projects.
> If you are interested in seeing your byline in The AMSAT Journal and
> sharing what you’ve learned with other members, email us at
> [log in to unmask]
> [ANS thanks Joseph KB6IGK for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> UFO Researcher To Launch CubeSat To Search For E.T. Close To Home
> An engineer turned UFO researcher is hoping to launch a low-earth
> orbit CubeSat to search for evidence of extraterrestrial life.
> Canadian Dave Cote has assembled a seven-person team to design, fund,
> build and launch the project that he hopes will provide some answers
> about the origins of recent unidentified object sightings across the
> globe.
> “We have had astronauts, military personnel, police officers and the
> former Defence Minister of Canada come forward stating that
> extraterrestrial UFOs are real, and that we are being visited,” says
> Cote. “How can this be ignored and brushed off as nonsense?”
> Concerned that the public isn’t getting straight answers, the group
> has turned to crowdsourcing the project on Kickstarter.
> Measuring roughly the size of a shoebox, CubeSats can pack a lot of
> science equipment into a small space. They have also made satellite
> deployment much more affordable, in some cases costing less than the
> price of a lower-end automobile. Sites like CubeSatShop.com have
> taken much of the complexity out of ordering needed components.
> Cote says they’re a “go for launch” already but are looking for more
> funding so they can pack it with as much science equipment as
> possible. They aim to include image, infrared, electromagnetic, and
> radiation sensors. This would give them the capability of not only
> verifying visual data, but also correlating it with other events such
> as electromagnetic and radioactive fluctuations.
> The team plans to measure ionized radiation with a scintillation
> counter and two cameras will capture a near 360-degree view around
> the CubeSat. They plan to remove the infrared filters on the cameras
> to cover more of the visual range.
> Cote hopes to use amateur radio frequencies to transmit the data
> back to earth and a worldwide network of ham volunteers to receive it.
> “We are planning to use the ham frequencies to send data down from
> the CubeSat to earth in hex or datafax protocol,” says Cote. “From
> what we understand, we should be able to send a 100kB packet every
> few minutes and this will enable us to send image thumbnails from
> space, along with some basic EM data.”
> While the details of the transmissions have yet to be determined,
> Cote hopes to assemble a worldwide team of hams willing to receive
> and log whatever data the satellite captures.
> “We need help from the ham community, in capturing the data and
> relaying it to our site,” he says. “There will be a 15-minute window
> for download from the CubeSat, and then another volunteer would be
> needed for the next 15-minute time window.”
> Cote is cautiously optimistic that the satellite will provide
> corroboration of UFO reports from eyewitnesses on Earth. But even if
> the satellite doesn’t capture evidence of faraway visitors, he’s
> hopeful that it will record interesting natural phenomenon like
> meteors and solar flares.
> “We can only hope that those who would like to know the truth will
> step forward and help,” he says.
> To learn more about the project or to volunteer, visit their
> KickStarter page.
> https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1889966504/cubesat-for-disclosure
> [ANS thanks Matt W1MST and AmateurRadio.com for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> Pair of Satellites ejected from ISS for In-Space Navigation Exercise
> A package of two satellites was ejected from the International Space
> Station on Friday to begin a mission dedicated to a demonstration of
> autonomous navigation, rendezvous and docking technology. The second
> LONESTAR mission is comprised of two satellites built by two American
> Universities to undertake a demonstration of communication cross
> links, data exchange, GPS-based navigation, relative navigation,
> stationkeeping and data transmission to the ground.
> LONESTAR stands for "Low Earth Orbiting Navigation Experiment for
> Spacecraft Testing Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking" and includes
> four missions flown over a period of years in a cost-effective
> technology development program with the goal of mastering autonomous
> rendezvous and docking. The second LONESTAR mission consists of the
> AggieSat4 satellite built at Texas A&M and BEVO-2 built by students
> at the University of Texas. The smaller BEVO-2 satellite is
> facilitated within a deployer on the AggieSat4 spacecraft to be
> released once the two have flown well clear of the International
> Space Station.
> The two satellites, already packaged, were sent to the Space Station
> aboard the Cygnus OA-4 mission. Launching satellites to ISS for
> deployment has the advantage of allowing the satellites to be
> launched well-packaged to avoid damage and providing the opportunity
> of an inspection in space to check for any damage encountered during
> launch before committing them to flight.
> Given the size of the AggieSat4 satellite, the deployment conducted
> on Friday made use of the SSIKLOPS deployment mechanism, going by the
> full name "Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital
> Payload Systems." SSIKLOPS can be used to deploy larger satellites of
> different shapes up to a mass of 110 Kilograms. It is a flat
> structure that includes grapple fixtures for the robotic arms of the
> Space Station and a single grapple fixture for the satellite that is
> to be deployed. The fixture includes clamps and springs for the
> deployment of the satellite. Overall, the structure is 127 by 61 by
> 7.6 centimeters in size. It also includes interfaces for the slide
> table of the JEM Airlock.
> SSIKLOPS first saw action in 2014 when deploying the SpinSat
> spacecraft and spent most of its time in storage aboard ISS, awaiting
> the deployment of future satellites. Final preparations for Friday's
> deployment were made on Wednesday when ISS Astronauts Scott Kelly and
> Tim Peake installed the SSIKLOPS deployer on the Slide Table of the
> Kibo module's airlock followed by the installation of the Small Fine
> Arm (SFA) Plate on the deployer and the attachment of the LONESTAR
> satellite package. The slide table was then retracted and the airlock
> sealed off for depressurization on Thursday.
> The outer hatch of the airlock was opened and a careful ground-
> controlled operation started to retrieve the SSIKLOPS deployer and
> hand it from the Small Fine Arm to the Japanese Robotic Arm that was
> then positioned for the deployment to ensure the satellite departed
> to the correct direction, ruling out any possibility of re-contact
> with ISS on subsequent orbits. Release was triggered just before
> 16:00 UTC on Friday and the LONESTAR package slowly floated away from
> ISS, embarking on its mission that will last as long as the
> satellites can remain in orbit, typically between six and twelve
> months.
> Drifting away from the Space Station, LONESTAR showed slight body
> rates on all three axes as it slowly faded into the distance. The
> Mission Team confirmed they were happy with the observed body rates
> and declared the deployment a success. Congratulations were exchanged
> between the different teams involved in the deployment - NASA's
> Mission Control, the JAXA Control Center in Japan, Payload
> Controllers in Huntsville and the payload's operators in Texas.
> The spacecraft was programmed to power-up automatically ten minutes
> after release, perform a health check and start transmitting
> telemetry. Acquisition of signal was expected later on Friday to
> begin a multi-day checkout campaign ahead of the satellite conducting
> its de-tumble maneuver to enter a three-axis stabilized attitude
> setting up for the deployment of BEVO-2.
> The AggieSat4 satellite, developed and manufactured at Texas A&M
> University, has a mass of approximately 55 Kilograms and measures 75
> x 75 x 35 centimeters in size. The satellite hosts body-mounted solar
> panels for power generation and is equipped with a three-axis
> attitude determination and control system with an actuation accuracy
> of two degrees, making use of reaction wheels and magnetic torquers.
> The Electrical Power System hosts two battery packs delivering an
> operational voltage of 34 V and a capacity of 95 Watt-hours.
> AggieSat4 hosts two low-data-rate (LDR) radios, a high-data-rate
> (HDR) radio, a crosslink radio for short-range communication with the
> Bevo-2 satellite, and a DRAGON GPS Payload.
> AggieSat4 will be tasked with completing a number of mission
> objectives: demonstrating three-axis stabilization, the collection of
> GPS data, recording video of the release of BEVO-2 with a 2MP camera,
> computing and crosslinking relative navigation data based on relative
> GPS measurements and tracking BEVO-2 based on these navigation
> solutions.
> The 4.2-Kilogram BEVO-2 satellite uses the 3U CubeSat Form Factor,
> 10 x 10 x 34 centimeters, employing an ISIPOD for deployment from
> AggieSat4. The satellite features 24 solar cells installed on its
> external panels to deliver power to 6 batteries operating at a
> voltage of 7.4 V.
> BEVO-2 has four deployable radio antennas and GPS patch antennas.
> Attitude determination is accomplished with gyroscopes,
> magnetometers, a star tracker and sun sensor while attitude actuation
> employs reaction wheels and magnetic torquers. To connect with
> AggieSat4 for the exchange of navigation data, the spacecraft hosts a
> crosslink radio unit while communications with the ground make use of
> a UHF/VHF terminal for data downlink and command uplink.
> The satellite is outfitted with a cold gas thruster module holding
> 90 grams of Dupont R-236fa refrigerant stored at pressure to be
> released for maneuvers of the satellite for stationkeeping and
> rendezvous exercises with AggieSat4.
> As the second of four LONESTAR missions, AggieSat4 and BEVO-2 build
> on the success of the previous mission in 2009 as part of a program
> outlined to make successive progress towards the ultimate goal of
> achieving an autonomous rendezvous and docking of two satellites. The
> autonomy aspect of LONESTAR is of particular importance for future
> missions to distant targets where communication delays require
> spacecraft to act autonomously.
> [ANS thanks spaceflight101.com for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> LilacSat-2 FM Transponder
> Paul Stoetzer reports:
> "I have noticed that LilacSat-2's FM transponder has been on nearly
> continuously for the past four days They may be keeping it active
> continuously during the holiday period in China.
> It's worth checking out if you haven't worked it yet. It's got a
> good signal and can be easier to track than SO-50 because the carrier
> stays active for a period when not receiving signals. The downlink
> antenna also uses circular polarization, so there is less fading when
> using linear antennas than on SO-50.
> Uplink: 144.350 MHz FM (No PL)
> Downlink: 437.200 MHz FM
> Keep in mind that this uplink frequency is not within the normal
> 145.800 - 146.000 MHz satellite subband on two meters, though this
> frequency is within the 144.300 - 144.500 MHz "New OSCAR subband" in
> the ARRL band plan and is allocated to the Amateur Satellite Service
> (as is the entirety of 144 - 146 MHz). On passes over the United
> States, quite a few packet signals can be heard through the
> transponder.
> If you use LoTW, the satellite name to use when uploading QSOs is
> 'CAS-3H.'
> [ANS thanks Paul N8HM for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> 6W8CK on Satellite
> Conrad, 6W8CK, will be active on satellites from IK14 near Mbour,
> Senegal until mid-February. He does not wish to publish his private
> email, but is interested in skeds with North American stations who are
> in range. If you are interested in setting up a sked, please look up
> your mutual windows and email me. I will contact Conrad with a list of
> operators and mutual windows.
> He will try to be active on CW near 145.930 on AO-7 and 435.830 on
> FO-29 during the afternoons, but may also be available on late night /
> early morning passes for skeds.
> Conrad is using a Yaesu FT-736R and an Elk antenna mounted up 5 meter
> above ground. He does occasionally lose power, so keep this in mind if
> you do not hear him on a particular pass.
> QSL only via the DARC bureau to his home call, DF7OL. He may also
> return to Senegal from November 2016 - February 2017.
> [ANS thanks Paul, N8HM for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> IARU Paper: APRS Harmonization and removal of OSCAR sub-band
> IARU Region 1 has released the papers for the Interim Meeting to be
> held in Vienna April 15-17, 2016.
> Among the papers for the C5 VHF/UHF/Microwave Committee is one on
> harmonizing APRS.
> VIE16_C5_41_1.pdf – 144 /435 MHz APRS Harmonisation
> The paper covers global band planning considerations and among the
> recommendations says:
> Emphasise that spaceborne APRS must be confined to globally
> coordinated amateur satellite sub bands. Therefore items that are
> ambiguous and generate confusion in national band plans such as
> ‘Space communications’ and ‘New Oscar Sub band’ should be removed as
> soon as possible in all Regions in accordance with IARU-AC and
> Satellite Coordination guidance
> It is believed that ‘New Oscar Sub band’ refers to the USA’s ARRL
> 144 MHz band plan and ‘Space communications’  to the Australian WIA
> 144 MHz band plan. These band plans, as well as those for some other
> countries, show 144.300 – 144.500 MHz as being for Amateur Satellite
> use.
> Direct link for C5 VHF/UHF/Microwave Papers
> http://tinyurl.com/ANS031-Microwave
> Links for all committee papers and email addresses of Committee
> Chairs are at
> http://tinyurl.com/ANS031-IARU
> ARRL 144 MHz Band Plan http://www.arrl.org/band-plan
> WIA 144 MHz Band Plan http://tinyurl.com/ANS031-APRS
> [ANS thanks AMSAT-UK for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> ISS Orbit Boosted Ahead of March Crew Swap - Check Your Elements
> The International Space Station raised its orbit Wednesday afternoon
> before a pair of crews swap places and a cargo ship arrives in March.
> One-year crew members Scott Kelly of NASA and Mikhail Kornienko of
> Roscosmos are set to return home March 1 along with Russian cosmonaut
> Sergey Volkov. Then, Expedition 47 will begin and three new crew
> members will arrive March 19. New supplies are scheduled to be
> delivered to the crew March 31 aboard a Progress 63 cargo craft.
> The orbiting Expedition 46 crew was back at work Tuesday on a series
> of life science and physics experiments to benefit life on Earth and
> crews living in space. Commander Scott Kelly explored maximizing the
> effects of exercise in space while British astronaut Tim Peake
> studied how living in space affects using touch-based technologies,
> repairing sensitive equipment and a variety of other tasks. NASA
> astronaut Tim Kopra researched how materials burn in space.
> Two cosmonauts resized their Russian Orlan spacesuits today, checked
> them for leaks and set up hardware before next week’s maintenance
> spacewalk. Flight Engineers Sergey Volkov and Yuri Malenchenko will
> work outside Feb. 3 in their Orlan suits to install hardware and
> science experiments on the orbital lab’s Russian segment.
> [ANS thanks blogs.nasa,gov for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> ARISS News
> + A Successful contact was made between Brihaspati Vidyasadan,
> Kathmandu, Nepal and Astronaut Timothy Peake KG5BVI using Callsign
> NA1SS. The contact began 2016-01-20 08:37 UTC  and lasted about nine
> and a half minutes. Contact was telebridge via VK5ZAI. ARISS Mentor
> was 7M3TJZ. This event represents the 984th ARISS contact. A YouTube
> video of the evnt can be seen here
> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25gCS1JTPxA
> Upcoming ARISS Contact Schedule as of 2016-01-27
> Christ The King School,  Rutland, Vermont, telebridge via VK4KHZ)
> The ISS callsign is presently  scheduled to be NA1SS. The scheduled
> astronaut is Tim Kopra KE5UDN
> Contact is a go for: Thu 2016-02-04 18:28:16 UTC
> "Gesmundo Moro Fiore" Secondary School, Terlizzi, Italy, telebridge
> via LU1CGB. The ISS callsign is presently scheduled to be  NA1SS. The
> scheduled astronaut is Timothy Peake KG5BVI.
> Contact is a go for: Sat 2016-02-06 09:09:01 UTC
> [ANS thanks ARISS, Charlie AJ9N and David AA4KN for the above
> information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> Satellite Shorts From All Over
> + Congrats to Steve Kristoff, AI9IN, for having worked 5 hams in the
>  EM55 grid.
>  To earn 5 in EM55 award #59, please check out
>  http://www.starcommgroup.org for the awards offered.
>  [ANS thanks Damon Runion, WA4HFN, for the above information]
> + The Colorado Amateur Satellite Net is held 7PM mountain time on
>  Thursdays 6PM Pacific. 7PM Mountain, 8PM Central, 9PM Eastern
>  For more information visit http://www.amsatnet.info/
>  [ANS thanks Skyler KD0WHB for the above information]
> + The Jan/Feb issue of The AMSAT Journal is off to the printer.
>  [ANS thanks Joseph KB6IGK for the above information]
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> /EX
> In addition to regular membership, AMSAT offers membership in the
> President's Club. Members of the President's Club, as sustaining
> donors to AMSAT Project Funds, will be eligible to receive addi-
> tional benefits. Application forms are available from the AMSAT
> Office.
> Primary and secondary school students are eligible for membership
> at one-half the standard yearly rate. Post-secondary school students
> enrolled in at least half time status shall be eligible for the stu-
> dent rate for a maximum of 6 post-secondary years in this status.
> Contact Martha at the AMSAT Office for additional student membership
> information.
> 73,
> This week's ANS Editor,
> EMike McCardel, AA8EM (former KC8YLD)
> kc8yld at amsat dot org
> _______________________________________________
> Via the ANS mailing list courtesy of AMSAT-NA
> http://www.amsat.org/mailman/listinfo/ans